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Vladimir Trofimov
Vladimir Trofimov

2 4 Dinitrophenol Buy

2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) is ahighly toxic industrial chemical with legitimate uses, but it is not intendedfor human consumption. DNP is a yellow powder, often put into capsules beforebeing sold to the consumer as a fat loss aid. Following an intelligence led investigationby the FSAI, in cooperation with other State agencies, a quantity of capsules containing DNP were seized. These capsules were madeavailable via the website www.

2 4 dinitrophenol buy

2,4-Dinitrophenol, 96%, supplied by Avra Synthesis, is dinitrophenol that has nitro groups at positions 2 and 4. It is utilized in the oxidative phosphorylation inhibitor. 2,4-Dinitrophenol, 96% also plays a role in the form of an antiseptic drug, bacterial xenobiotic metabolite, and an allergen.

Background: 2,4 dinitrophenol (DNP) is a toxic industrial chemical that reduces body weight and body fat by uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation but at the risk of severe dose-related toxicity. Increases in human DNP exposures have been reported in the United Kingdom, the United States and Australia in recent years, but little information is available for other countries. This study was performed in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO) to establish international rates of systemic DNP-related exposures and deaths, as reported to poisons centres.

In the sanctity of pure drug discovery, objective reasoning can become clouded when pursuing ideas that appear unorthodox, but are spot on physiologically. To put this into historical perspective, it was an unorthodox idea in the 1950's to suggest that warfarin, a rat poison, could be repositioned into a breakthrough drug in humans to protect against strokes as a blood thinner. Yet it was approved in 1954 as Coumadin and has been prescribed to billions of patients as a standard of care. Similarly, no one can forget the horrific effects of thalidomide, prescribed or available without a prescription, as both a sleeping pill and "morning sickness" anti-nausea medication targeting pregnant women in the 1950's. The "thalidomide babies" became the case-in-point for the need of strict guidelines by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA) or full multi-species teratogenicity testing before drug approval. More recently it was found that thalidomide is useful in graft versus host disease, leprosy and resistant tuberculosis treatment, and as an anti-angiogenesis agent as a breakthrough drug for multiple myeloma (except for pregnant female patients). Decades of diabetes drug discovery research has historically focused on every possible angle, except, the energy-out side of the equation, namely, raising mitochondrial energy expenditure with chemical uncouplers. The idea of "social responsibility" allowed energy-in agents to be explored and the portfolio is robust with medicines of insulin sensitizers, insulin analogues, secretagogues, SGLT2 inhibitors, etc., but not energy-out medicines. The primary reason? It appeared unorthodox, to return to exploring a drug platform used in the 1930s in over 100,000 obese patients used for weight loss. This is over 80-years ago and prior to Dr Peter Mitchell explaining the mechanism of how mitochondrial uncouplers, like 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) even worked by three decades later in 1961. Although there is a clear application for metabolic disease, it was not until recently that this platform was explored for its merit at very low, weight-neutral doses, for treating insidious human illnesses and completely unrelated to weight reduction. It is known that mitochondrial uncouplers specifically target the entire organelle's physiology non-genomically. It has been known for years that many neuromuscular and neurodegenerative diseases are associated with overt production of reactive oxygen species (ROSs), a rise in isoprostanes (biomarker of mitochondrial ROSs in urine or blood) and poor calcium (Ca2+) handing. It has also been known that mitochondrial uncouplers lower ROS production and Ca2+ overload. There is evidence that elevation of isoprostanes precedes disease onset, in Alzheimer's Disease (AD). It is also curious, why so many neurodegenerative diseases of known and unknown etiology start at mid-life or later, such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Huntington Disease (HD), AD, Parkinson Disease, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Is there a relationship to a buildup of mutations that are sequestered over time due to ROSs exceeding the rate of repair? If ROS production were managed, could disease onset due to aging be delayed or prevented? Is it possible that most, if not all neurodegenerative diseases are manifested through mitochondrial dysfunction? Although DNP, a historic mitochondrial uncoupler, was used in the 1930s at high doses for obesity in well over 100,000 humans, and so far, it has never been an FDA-approved drug. This review will focus on the application of using DNP, but now, repositioned as a potential disease-modifying drug for a legion of insidious diseases at much lower and paradoxically, weight neutral doses. DNP will be addressed as a treatment for "metabesity", an emerging term related to the global comorbidities associated with the over-nutritional phenotype; obesity, diabetes, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, but including neurodegenerative disorders and accelerated aging. Some unexpected drug findings will be discussed, such as DNP's induction of neurotrophic growth factors involved in neuronal heath, learning and cognition. For the first time in 80's years, the FDA has granted (to Mitochon Pharmaceutical, Inc., Blue Bell, PA, USA) an open Investigational New Drug (IND) approval to begin rigorous clinical testing of DNP for safety and tolerability, including for the first ever, pharmacokinetic profiling in humans. Successful completion of Phase I clinical trial will open the door to explore the merits of DNP as a possible treatment of people with many truly unmet medical needs, including those suffering from HD, MS, PD, AD, ALS, Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), and Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI).

DNP was particularly useful as a herbicide alongside other closely related dinitrophenol herbicides like 2,4-dinitro-o-cresol (DNOC), dinoseb and dinoterb.[5] Since 1998 DNP has been withdrawn from agricultural use.[6] Currently, there are no actively registered pesticides containing DNP in the United States or Europe.[7][8] Dinoseb is used industrially as a polymerisation inhibitor during styrene production. In 2023 after extensive consultation the Home Office couldn't determine any legitimate industrial DNP uses in the United Kingdom.[9]

DNP was widely used in explosive mixtures around the world. Examples include Shellite in the UK, Tridite in the US, Tridita in Spain, MDPC/DD in France, MABT/MBT in Italy, and DNP in the Soviet Union.[49] During World War I, 36 munition factory workers in France and 27 in the US lost their lives through DNP poisoning.[50] 2,4-dinitrophenol was widely used by Red Army soldiers to make them more resilient to the cold during World War II.[51]

2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) is a highly toxic industrial chemical. It has been illegally sold as a diet pill for weight loss. DNP is poisonous to humans and can cause death, as well as other serious physical side effects.

MP201 is a prodrug of the mitochondrial uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) that harnesses the power of the mitochondria by increasing energy expenditure that results in strengthening cellular survival [25], similar to the positive effects seen with fasting and exercise [37]. A recent study showed that mitochondrial uncoupling achieved by overexpression of UCP2 protected RGCs from glutamate excitotoxicity [29]. Thus, we hypothesized that MP201 may have similar neuroprotective properties that suppress RGC loss in optic neuritis and improve visual outcomes. The potential ability of MP201 to suppress optic neuritis and prevent RGC loss was examined in EAE mice.

Symptoms of acute 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) poisoning include fever, dehydration, nausea, vomiting, restlessness, flushed skin and a rapid heartbeat. These can quickly progress to coma and death. Even after prolonged and seemingly uneventful use, this toxicity can develop, says the National Poisons Information Service (NPIS), and anyone with symptoms needs to be referred straight to hospital for treatment.

The visible-light-induced photocatalytic performance of a three-dimensional (3D) hybrid composite based on carbon nano-onion (CNO)-functionalized zinc-oxide tetrapods (T-ZnO) was investigated to study the photocatalytic degradation of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP). The hybrid CNO-functionalized T-ZnO 3D composite was successfully developed via a facile one-step process. The CNOs, synthesized via a green route from flaxseed oil, were decorated on the surface of T-ZnO via chemical mixing. Such a hybrid composite allows for the complete optimization of the T-ZnO/CNO interface to enhance visible-light harvesting, contributing to effective visible-light-induced photocatalysis. The enhanced photocatalytic performance of the T-ZnO-CNO 3D composite is attributed to the strong synergistic effects obtained by the unique cumulative intrinsic properties of CNOs and the 3D architecture of T-ZnO, which lead to exceptional charge transfer and separation. A reaction mechanism for the degradation of DNP is proposed based on a bandgap analysis and trapping experiments. Furthermore, the photocatalyst maintains a favorable reusability during consecutive cycling experiments. The ecological assessment of the photocatalytic process was performed via the germination of common gram seeds (Cicer arietinum) and reveals the low toxicity and environmental safety of the synthesized hybrid 3D composite. The observations confirm that the synthesized hybrid 3D composite facilitates wastewater decontamination using photocatalytic technology and highlights the broad implications of designing multifunctional materials for various advanced applications. 041b061a72


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